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Commentaries on Matthew

This work is written for one who does have a fluid knowledge of philosophy, not alone Thomas Aquinas. What this The built-in table of contents From his careful consideration of what true happiness is, to his comprehensive One of the Greatest Philosophical and Theological Masterpieces of All Time "The human mind may perceive truth only through thinking, as is clear from Augustine.

In his reflections on Christianity, Saint Thomas Aquinas forged a unique synthesis of ancient philosophy and medieval theology. Preoccupied with the relationship between faith and reason, he was influenced both by This book is a faithful transcription of a edition. The Summa Contra Gentiles is in the unique position of a classic of which the author's manuscript is still in great part extant.

It currently resides in the Vatican Library.

Catena Aurea St Mark

There are two ways of behaving towards Thomas' The Golden Chain, was compiled by one of the Catholic Church's greatest minds, it has been an immeasurable use to priests writing homilies, lay people engaged in private or family study or of the Gospels and religious In the fall of , Thomas Aquinas went to Paris to study theology. Just after 4 four years Aquinas received permission to teach theology at the university.

There, he lectured on the Sentences of Peter Lombard and the Thomas Aquinas was without question the greatest theologian in the history of the Catholic Church, and the "Summa Theologica" was his masterpiece and one of the most influential theological books Thank you for your support! See More Get It. Treatise on the Virtues by Thomas Aquinas 2 reviews Quick View In his Treatise on the Virtues, Aquinas discusses the character and function of habit; the essence, subject, cause, and meaning of virtue; and the separate intellectual, moral, cardinal, and theological virtues.

Concerning Being and Essence by Thomas Aquinas 2 reviews Quick View This early work of philosophy is both expensive and hard to find in its first edition. Primary Sources. Aelred of Rievaulx , SC Google Scholar. Secondary Sources. Adam, A.

Matthew Through the Centuries. References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Another motivating factor is surely the postmodern proclivity to recognise that different historical and different personal contexts generate different readings of texts, and that texts accordingly have multiple meanings.


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Many of us are no longer hypnotised by the quest for some recommended original and so authoritative sense, whether of an author or of an author's first audience. We are keenly aware of the plasticity of texts, and how easily and thoroughly they succumb to interpretive agendas, conscious and unconscious. A technological factor is also at work here. Whilst there is no denying the current proliferation of books and articles that highlight the history of interpretation and reception history, there is also no denying the proliferation of books and articles on just about every other subject under the sun, within biblical studies as well as without.

There is more of everything. Of this the explanation is not ideology but technology the means of production. We can produce more than in the past and are doing so.

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On top of this, there are far more New Testament scholars today than in the past as well as many more publications for what those scholars produce today than in the past; and in a publish or perish academy, it does not surprise that just about every subject is, in comparison with the past, thriving. Whatever the reasons for the current interest in what the Germans call Wirkungsgeschichte, I would like to stress, before turning to Matthew, that the history of interpretation has been around, in one form or another, for a very long time.

We are not doing something brand new, when we focus on what has been happening with a text in times gone by. We are rather continuing, expanding, and modifying an activity that has long been practiced. To be sure, I do not wish to deny the obvious, which is that the present is in many ways different from the past.

Nonetheless, the history of interpretation has its own lengthy pedigree cf. Its volumes started appearing in the s, long before most New Testament scholars had heard of Wirkungsgeschichte e. And three decades before Beitrage zur Geschichte der Biblischen Exegese, we had the wonderful, although unfortunately not well known, six volume contribution of Harold Smith on patristic exegesis of the gospels. Beyond that, anyone who has spent time in the older commentaries knows that they were sometimes interested in earlier interpretation.

The magisterial International critical commentary on James by James Hardy Ropes has a long and superb section on the use and interpretation of James throughout history. Moving back to the 19th century, the exegesis in the commentary on the Sermon on the Mount of August Tholuck's is repeatedly oriented to the history of interpretation, and the multiple New Testament commentaries of H.

Meyer e. And this was nothing new. The commentaries of such influential Roman Catholic exegetes as John Maldonatus and Cornelius Lapide are overflowing with citations of patristic writers and medieval schoolmen see e.

Thomas Aquinas: Catena Aurea - Matthew: English

De Maldonatus ; Lapide One might of course expect this given the authority of tradition for their ecclesiastical tradition. Earlier Protestants, however, also minded the past to support and illuminate their own exegetical aims. Unlike Manton, this work is purely polemical. It does, however, show a Protestant's vast knowledge of the history of interpretation.

I could of course keep moving back further in time until I arrived at the obvious, which is that, ultimately, all this attention to the history of exegesis had its birth in the traditional catenas, in the pre-Reformation commentaries that collected the opinions of predecessors, commentaries such as Aquinas' Catena Aurea on the gospels I have said enough, however, to establish that our present work is not unprecedented but rather the current phrase of a very long history.

The fact matters because it is all too easy to overvalue the present moment, to take all the credit for ourselves, to imagine that we perceive what everyone before us failed to see. Privileging recent work to the neglect of earlier work is, in my judgement, an unfortunate habit. Much that we think of as new, including the history of interpretation, is reallyold.

All interpreters, moreover, including modern historical critics, belong to a centuries-long, unfinished history of effects. We do not somehow stand outside of that history, and we are no more its end than we are its beginning. Further, we should not presume that our own agendas and perspectives - which will soon enough give way to different agendas and perspectives - are in every way superior to all that has come before us.

Important as these points are, however, I wish in this article to focus on something else.

Mark 12:29-31 (Catena Aurea)

It is my conviction that the history of interpretation is important not only because it bestows upon us some humility and perspective by putting us in a large historical context, but because it can profoundly inform our own exegetical and historical judgements. The rest of this article is an attempt to establish and illustrate this claim from my own study of Matthew. What I wish to do, is reflect on the decades during which I have worked on and written about this Gospel and share some ways that the history of interpretation has served me to numerous good ends.

My first proposition is that careful attention to older writings sometimes allows one to recover exegetical suggestions and profitable lines of inquiry that, from an historical-critical point of view, should never have dropped out of the commentary tradition but have done so. I offer in evidence four illustrations. My first example of this phenomenon has to do with Matthew , where Jesus says:.

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If then you are offering your gift upon the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. I remember distinctly, when I was first working my way through the Sermon on the Mount, that I was at the same time going through the old volumes in the Ante-Nicene Fathers series, looking for whatever might illumine Matthew.

Volume 5 had Cyprian in it, and I ran across two passages that grabbed my attention. The first was in Cyprian's treatise on The unity of the Catholic Church:. And so, if a person comes to the sacrifice with strife in his heart, he [Jesus] calls him back from the altar and bids him to be reconciled to his brother first, and then in peace of soul to return and to make his offering to God.

For the very gifts of Cain did not win God's regard. Such a person could not have God at peace with him when he was torn with jealousy towards his brother and was at war with him. What sort of peace then do the enemies of the brethren promise themselves? What sort of sacrifice do they think they offer in competition with the priests?

The second passage was in Cyprian's work on The Lord's Prayer:.


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God does not receive the sacrifice of a person who is in disagreement, but commands him to go back from the altar and first be reconciled to his brother, so that God also may be appeased by the prayers of a peacemaker. Our peace and brotherly agreement is the greater sacrifice to God For even in the sacrifices which Abel and Cain first offered, God looked not at their gifts, but at their hearts, so that he was acceptable in his gift who was acceptable in his heart. Abel, peaceable and righteous in sacrificing in innocence to God, taught others also, when they bring their gift to the altar, thus to come with the fear of God, with a simple heart, with the law of righteousness, with the peace of concord The quarrelsome and disunited and he who has not peace with his brothers.

I had never before linked Matthew with Cain and Abel and Genesis But as I thought about the possibility, it came to appeal to me more and more. The two texts share several thematic and verbal links. If Matthew opens by raising the subject of murder, Genesis 4 recounts the Bible's first murder.